Marzano acknowledges that some feel that disciplinary actions are ineffective and counterproductive. But, he writes, "the research and theory strongly support a balanced approach that employs a variety of techniques." I think this variety is exactly what I was lacking earlier this year. Last school year, I would keep my last period class after school when they chose to disrupt the classroom. For them, the peer pressure and need to get home was usually enough to quell any major uprisings. For individuals, I gave referrals.
When I tried the same thing this year, it hardly did the job. In some classes the "Time After" method worked for a few weeks, in others it was completely ineffective. Just like instruction, there is no silver bullet for classroom management.
My redesigned system involves both rewards and punishments. Students start the day coming in and are required to be in their seats with all their materials on their desk when the bell rings. They are then either to start reading their novels or begin the writing prompt. Before, students would lose points from their conversation calendars at the end of the day if they did not pull this off flawlessly. But the way I would inform them if they were off task would be by adding time after class (if I informed them at all). Students had no immediate, individual indication that their actions were below expectations or above par.
|The old . . .|
|. . . and the new|
The point system is a form of what Marzano calls tangible recognition and "involves the use of some concrete symbol of appropriate behavior." He notes that many of these classrooms have some sort of token that's received for good behavior, which can then be traded in for prizes or activities or something like that. I'm adding this element to my class as well, as some students with less of a sweet tooth are getting tired of Jolly Ranchers every single day. They'll be able to trade in Jolly Ranchers for Bleck Bucks, which they can accumulate for extra bathroom passes, or reading outside/in the library, or going to the school's coffee cart, or maybe save up 50 or 100 for a McDonald's gift certificate. Since they'll have to trade in the Jolly Ranchers to receive Bleck Bucks, I won't have to buy as many Jolly Ranchers and can put that money to other prizes with a cost. (One 3.75 pound bag of the candies costs me about seven dollars at Walmart and lasts about 2 weeks with my 90 students. It's a small price to pay for their improved behavior.)
A group contingency is also noted by Marzano to have a high effect size. My time after policy was an example of this, and I sometimes still use it when many people in the class are talking at once and I don't have time to make three different hits on calendars in three different corners of the room. Teacher reaction is also discussed; these are the basics - the look, proximity, and an auditory and visual cue.
I found tangible recognition to be the most helpful to me, though group contingency and teacher reaction also have a high effect size. Calling home or providing a direct cost with punishment like detention or cleaning the classroom are also discussed, but have a significantly lower effect size (about .5 compared to .9).
The next post in this series will discuss teacher-student relationships. You can also read the previous post on rules and procedures. You can also download my conversation calendar file and try it out in class yourself in either Microsoft Word or PDF.